The F-4 nozzle is established as a standard for plasma spraying, although the construction has its deficits. As several different investigations pointed out great potential to improve the nozzle design, we decided to develop together with the Technical University of Ilmenau (Germany) new nozzles for APS and VPS.
As a result, two convergent-divergent nozzles with a Laval-like-contour are now commercial available from Medicoat. The nozzles have the names V21 and V70. The numbers 21 and 70 stands for the length of prolongation com-pared to the standard F-4 type for APS. The new nozzles are combined with the standard F-4 electrodes (cathode) and can be used with all F-4 compatible plasmatrons (as type MC-60 from Medicoat). The new contour offers advantages compared to the F-4 type.